Volume 10.19 | May 20

ESC & iPSC News 10.19 May 20, 2015
ESC & iPSC News
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Autophagy and mTORC1 Regulate the Stochastic Phase of Somatic Cell Reprogramming
Scientists described robust induction of autophagy during the reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells by four reprogramming factors (Sox2, Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc). This process occured independently of p53 activation, and was mediated by the synergistic downregulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and the induction of autophagy-related genes. [Nat Cell Biol] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
LOXL2 Oxidizes Methylated TAF10 and Controls TFIID-Dependent Genes during Neural Progenitor Differentiation
The authors identified methylated TAF10, a member of the TFIID complex, as a LOXL2 substrate. LOXL2 oxidation of TAF10 induced its release from its promoters, leading to a block in TFIID-dependent gene transcription. In embryonic stem cells, this results in the inactivation of the pluripotency genes and loss of the pluripotent capacity. [Mol Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

A Primary Role for the Tsix lncRNA in Maintaining Random X-Chromosome Inactivation
Researchers found that Xist is stably repressed on the XΔTsix in both sexes in undifferentiated epiblast cells in vivo and in vitro, resulting in stochastic X-inactivation in females despite Tsix-heterozygosity. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

A Method for Human Teratogen Detection by Geometrically Confined Cell Differentiation and Migration
Researchers spatially directed mesoendoderm differentiation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the ensuing cell migration in micropatterned human pluripotent stem cell colonies to collectively form an annular mesoendoderm pattern. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Development of a Monitoring Method for Nonlabeled Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Growth by Time-Lapse Image Analysis
Using a time-lapse imaging system, investigators developed a method to determine the growth of human pluripotent stem cells from non-labeled live cell phase-contrast images without damaging these cells. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Directed Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells From Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
The authors described a standardized, defined protocol that reliably directs the differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells to generate high yields of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells that are capable of maturing into oligodendrocytes. [Cell Transplant] Abstract

Genome-Wide Definition of Promoter and Enhancer Usage during Neural Induction of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Scientists combined high-throughput identification of transcription start sites with genome-wide profiling of histones modifications to map active promoters and enhancers in embryonic stem cells induced to neuroepithelial-like stem cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

HSA21 Single-Minded 2 (SIM2) Binding Sites Co-Localize with Super-Enhancers and Pioneer Transcription Factors in Pluripotent Mouse ES Cells
Researchers aimed to explore the functional capacity of SIM2 by mapping its DNA binding sites in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Analysis of the SIM2 target genes confirmed the importance of SIM2 in developmental and neuronal processes and indicated that SIM2 may be a master transcription regulator. [PLoS One] Full Article

Directed Myogenic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Scientists introduced a myogenic differentiation protocol mediated by inducible transcription factor expression that reproducibly and efficiently drives human induced pluripotent stem cells into myocytes. [Methods Mol Biol] Abstract

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Autologous, Allogeneic, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell or a Combination Stem Cell Therapy? Where are we Headed in Cartilage Repair and Why: A Concise Review
The authors discuss the different aspects of new stem cell-based treatments, including safety and ethical issues, as well as provide an overview of current clinical trials exploring these approaches and future perspectives. [Stem Cell Res Ther] Full Article

iPSCs as a Major Opportunity to Understand and Cure Age-Related Diseases
The authors describe the hallmarks of cellular senescence before presenting how they reprogrammed aged and senescent cells into induced pluripotent stem cells and obtained rejuvenated re-differentiated cells. [Biogerontology] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the ESC & iPSC research field.
Pluristem’s PLX Cells One Step Closer to Entering Japan’s Accelerated Pathway for Regenerative Medicine
Pluristem Therapeutics Inc. announced that Japan’s Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency agreed with the proposed quality and large-scale manufacturing methods for PLX-PAD cells for use in clinical trials. [Pluristem Therapeutics Inc.] Press Release

UB and Roswell Park Receive $1.85 MIllion Grant to Launch Stem Cell Research Program
University at Buffalo and Roswell Park Cancer Institute researchers have been awarded a $1.85 million grant to create an interdisciplinary stem cell research training program. [University of Buffalo] Press Release

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US Science Academies Take on Human-Genome Editing
The United States National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine will launch a major initiative to develop guidelines for editing human genomes. [Nature News] Editorial

Steve Campana, Canadian Biologist, ‘Disgusted’ with Government Muzzling
A recently retired Fisheries and Oceans Canada biologist says the muzzling of federal government scientists is worse than anyone can imagine. Steve Campana, known for his expertise on everything from great white sharks to porbeagles and Arctic trout, says the atmosphere working for the federal government is toxic. [Canadian Broadcasting Corporation] Editorial
NEW Cells: from Robert Hooke to Cell Therapy – a 350 year journey
October 5-6, 2015
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the ESC & iPSC community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow Positions – iPSC Research and Banking (University of Magna Graecia)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Researcher- Systems Biology of X-Inactivation (Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics)

Postdoctoral Position – Cell Replacement Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Stem Cell Disease Modeling (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology, Epigenetics & Cancer (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

Stem Cell Culture Scientist (Paramount Recruitment)

Postdoctoral Position – Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Study Metabolism and Gene Expression Regulating Neural Tube Development (Joslin Diabetes Center)

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