Volume 10.35 | Sep 16

ESC & iPSC News 10.35 September 16, 2015
ESC & iPSC News
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Systematic Identification of Factors for Provirus Silencing in Embryonic Stem Cells
Researchers systematically dissected the cellular factors involved in provirus repression in embryonic carcinomas and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by a genome-wide siRNA screen. They report a genome-wide atlas of functional nodes that mediate proviral silencing in ESCs and illuminate the comprehensive, interconnected, and multi-layered genetic and epigenetic mechanisms by which ESCs repress retroviruses within the genome. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Daxx/Atrx Complex Protects Tandem Repetitive Elements during DNA Hypomethylation by Promoting H3K9 Trimethylation
Using genome-wide binding and transcriptome analysis, scientists found that Daxx and Atrx have distinct chromatin-binding profiles and are co-enriched at tandem repetitive elements in wild-type mouse embryonic stem cells. [Cell Stem Cell] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Polycomb Regulates Mesoderm Cell Fate-Specification in Embryonic Stem Cells through Activation and Repression Mechanisms
Researchers found that Mel18, also known as Pcgf2 and one of six Pcgf paralogs, uniquely regulates polycomb complex 1 to specify mesoderm cell fate in embryonic stem cells. [Cell Stem Cell]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Hierarchical Micro-Nano Surface Topography Promotes Long-Term Maintenance of Undifferentiated Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
The authors showed that synthetic surfaces possessing hierarchical micro-nano roughness promote long-term self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells as monitored by the expression levels of the pluripotency markers Oct4, Nanog and alkaline phosphatase. [Nano Lett] Abstract

miR-128 Represses L1 Retrotransposition by Binding Directly to L1 RNA
The authors showed that miR-128 represses new retrotransposition events in human cancer cells and induced pluripotent stem cells by binding directly to long interspersed element 1 (L1) RNA. [Nat Struct Mol Biol] Abstract

Generation of Self-Renewing Hepatoblasts from Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Chemical Approaches
Investigators efficiently generated hepatoblasts from human embryonic stem cells by a stepwise induction strategy. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Chd5 Regulates MuERV-L/MERVL Expression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells via H3K27me3 Modification and Histone H3.1/H3.2
Investigators disrupted the Chd5 locus using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to generate a 52 kbp long deletion, and analyzed Chd5 function in mouse embryonic stem cells. Their findings showed that Chd5 represses murine endogenous retrovirus-L (MuERV-L/MERVL), an endogenous retrovirus-derived retrotransposon, by regulating H3K27me3 and H3.1/H3.2 function. [J Cell Biochem] Abstract

Roles of Klf5 Acetylation in the Self-Renewal and the Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
Investigators showed the ubiquitous expression of acetylated Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) in the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, ruling out the possibility that differential acetylation status of Klf5 leads to the lineage specification in the blastocyst. [PLoS One] Full Article

Aberrant Differentiation of Tsc2-Deficient Teratomas Associated with Activation of the mTORC1-TFE3 Pathway
A new cell differentiation model was developed to study the mechanism of tuberous sclerosis 2 (Tsc2) mutation-associated pathogenesis by generating Tsc2-deficient embryonic stem cells from Eker rats. [Oncol Rep] Abstract | Download Full Article

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The Impact of Mechanical Stress on Stem Cell Properties: The Link between Cell Shape and Pluripotency
The authors discuss the effects of external environmental stimuli on cell differentiation and how this affects pluripotency, as well as the key molecules and pathways involved in mechanosignaling, particularly in relation to embryonic stem cells. [Stem Cell Res Ther] Abstract | Full Article

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Cancer Research UK and MedImmune Launch Ground-Breaking Biotherapeutics Research Center in Cambridge
A new laboratory that will focus on the discovery and development of novel biologic cancer treatments and diagnostics has been opened this week in Cambridge. The state-of-the-art CRUK-MEDI Alliance Laboratory is an innovative collaboration between Cancer Research UK, its commercial arm Cancer Research Technology, and MedImmune, the global biologics research and development arm of AstraZeneca. [Cancer Research UK] Press Release

Ogawa-Yamanaka Prize Founded at the Gladstone Institutes to Support Translational Stem Cell Research
The Gladstone Institutes presented the inaugural Ogawa-Yamanaka Stem Cell Prize to Masayo Takahashi, MD, PhD, a faculty member and project leader in the Laboratory for Retinal Regeneration at the RIKEN Centre for Developmental Biology in Japan. Dr. Takahashi was awarded the prize for her trailblazing work leading the first clinical trial to use induced pluripotent stem cells in humans. [Gladstone Institutes] Press Release

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Research on Gene Editing in Embryos Is Justified
Genetic editing of human embryos “has tremendous value” to help solve important scientific questions, and should proceed despite potential worries about use of the technique in the clinic. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

NIH Disclosure Rules Falter
Reforms, which took effect in 2012, require scientists to report industry connections in greater detail than before, and charge institutions with determining which ties are problematic. But three years later, it is not clear what the costly, cumbersome rules have accomplished. A Nature analysis suggests that institutions have vastly different standards for what constitutes a conflict — and that they classify relatively few relationships between researchers and industry as troublesome. [Nature News] Editorial
NEW Keystone Symposia – Stem Cells and Cancer
March 6-10, 2016
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NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Spinal Cord Injury Research (Indiana University-Purdue University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Embryonic Stem Cells, Bio-NEMS, and Tissue Engineering (University of South Carolina)

Laboratory Head – Stem Cell Biology (RIKEN)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Development and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer (University College London)

Postdoctoral Fellow – (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)

Advanced Research Assistant – Gene Targeting (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute)

Head of Research – Cellular Operations (Welcome Trust Sanger Institute)

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