Volume 11.18 | May 11

ESC & iPSC News 11.18 May 11, 2016
ESC & iPSC News
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Scientists Turn Skin Cells into Heart Cells and Brain Cells Using Drugs
Scientists transformed skin cells into heart cells and brain cells using a combination of chemicals. All previous work on cellular reprogramming required adding external genes to the cells, making this accomplishment an unprecedented feat. The research lays the groundwork for one day being able to regenerate lost or damaged cells with pharmaceutical drugs. [Press release from Gladstone Institutes discussing online prepublication in Science and Cell Stem Cell] Press Release | Abstract-Science | Abstract-Cell Stem Cell | Graphical Abstract
Register Now: Webinar by Dr. Chad Cowan on Investigating Metabolic Disease with Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Local Genome Topology Can Exhibit an Incompletely Rewired 3D-Folding State during Somatic Cell Reprogramming
The authors integrated fine-resolution architecture maps with epigenetic marks and gene expression in embryonic stem cells, neural progenitor cells (NPCs), and NPC-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. They found that most pluripotency genes reconnect to target enhancers during reprogramming. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Tumor Resistance in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Naked Mole-Rats
Scientists generated naked mole-rat (NMR)-induced pluripotent stem cells (NMR-iPSCs) and found that NMR-iPSCs do not exhibit teratoma-forming tumorigenicity due to the species-specific activation of tumor-suppressor alternative reading frame and a disruption mutation of the oncogene ES cell-expressed Ras. [Nat Commun] Full Article

RISC-Mediated Control of Selected Chromatin Regulators Stabilizes Ground State Pluripotency of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
Investigators performed an integrated analysis of RNA and proteins at the transition between naïve embryonic stem cells and cells primed to differentiate. During this transition, mRNAs coding for chromatin regulators are specifically released from translational inhibition mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). [Genome Biol] Full Article

Comparison of Syncytiotrophoblast Generated from Human Embryonic Stem Cells and from Term Placentas
Scientists proposed that the syncytiotrophoblast generated from human embryonic stem cells represents the primitive syncytium encountered in early pregnancy soon after the human trophoblast invades into the uterine wall. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

A Biomimetic Synthetic Feeder Layer Supports the Proliferation and Self-Renewal of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
On a biomimetic synthetic feeder layer (BSFL) mouse embryonic stem cells adhered and formed compact round colonies; similar to on MEF controls but not on flat polyacrylamide. ESCs on BSFLs maintained their pluripotency and self-renewal across passages, formed embryoid bodies and differentiated into progenitors of the three germ layers. [Acta Biomater] Abstract

Nanog, Oct4 and Tet1 Interplay in Establishing Pluripotency
Scientists proposed a multiple level model where the regulatory network of Oct4, Nanog and Tet1 includes positive feedback loops involving DNA-demethylation around the promoters of Oct4 and Tet1. [Sci Rep] Full Article

A Gonogenic Stimulated Transition of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells with Enhanced Control of Diverse Differentiation Pathways
The authors discovered that a cellular state with some molecular markers of male gonocyte induction, including a G1/S phase arrest and upregulation of specific genes such as Nanos2, Tdrd1, Ddx4, Zbtb16 and Plk1s1, can be chemically induced in male mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Enhanced Generation of Integration-Free iPSCs from Human Adult Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with an Optimal Combination of Episomal Vectors
Investigators previously reported the generation of integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells from adult peripheral blood with an improved episomal vector system, which uses the spleen focus-forming virus U3 promoter and an extra factor BCL-XL. Here they showed an ∼100-fold increase in efficiency by optimizing the vector combination. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Bidirectional Promoter Engineering for Single Cell MicroRNA Sensors in Embryonic Stem Cells
Researchers describe the engineering of bidirectional promoters that drive the expression of precise ratiometric fluorescent miRNA sensors in single mouse embryonic stem cells and their differentiated derivatives. [PLoS One] Full Article

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Chemical Transdifferentiation: Closer to Regenerative Medicine
The authors briefly retrospect the nature of cell transdifferentiation and summarize the current developments in the research of small molecules in promoting cell conversion. [Front Med] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the ESC & iPSC research field.
Scripps Florida Awarded $2.5 Million to Advance Development of RNA-Based Therapeutics
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have been awarded a $2.5 million grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health to design precision drug candidates that target disease-associated RNAs. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release

Cynata Announces Japanese Patent Office Decision to Grant Patent for Cymerus™ MSC technology
Cynata Therapeutics Limited announced that the Japanese Patent and Trademark Office has issued a Decision to Grant a patent covering certain aspects of its proprietary Cymerus™ mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) manufacturing technology. This patent covers a proprietary method for deriving MSCs from pluripotent stem cells. [Cynata Therapeutics Limited] Press Release

Axiogenesis Secures Major Funding for its Expansion Course
Axiogenesis has acquired a major investment from Sino-German High-Tech Fund to further expand product development, strengthen its disease modeling capabilities and increase market presence. Axiogenesis’ current product portfolio includes several validated induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiac and neural cell types. [Axiogenesis AG (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

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Open-Access Index Delists Thousands of Journals
A leading index of open-access journals is set to shrink by more than one-quarter after delisting around 3,300 titles as part of an effort to exclude questionable and inactive publishers. [Nature News] Editorial

NSF director unveils big ideas, with an eye on the next president and Congress
France Córdova, the director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in Arlington, Virginia, has unveiled a research agenda intended to shape the agency’s next few decades and win over the next U.S. president and Congress. [ScienceInsider] Editorial
NEW Cancer Stem Cell Conference 2016
September 20-23, 2016
Cleveland, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the ESC & iPSC community.
NEW Scientist – Target Validation (Innate Pharma)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetics of Aging (Leibniz Institute on Aging)

Research Technologist – Myogenic and Progenitor Cell (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetics and Aging (Leibniz Institute on Aging – Fritz Lipmann Institute)

Scientist and Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cells (National Institutes of Health)

Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cell/Genome Editing/Neuroscience/Neurodegeneration (Brigham & Women’s Hospital)

Cell Culture Technician (California Institute of Technology)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Research (Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Stem Cell Biology Regenerative Medicine Institute (NUI Galway)

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