Volume 8.36 | Sep 11

ESC & iPSC News 8.36 September 11, 2013
ESC & iPSC News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
SON Connects the Splicing-Regulatory Network with Pluripotency in Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Investigators identified the spliceosome-associated factor SON as a factor essential for the maintenance of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Depletion of SON in hESCs results in the loss of pluripotency and cell death. [Nat Cell Biol] Abstract | Press Release
Directed Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells - A Cell Stem Cell Poster
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Tissue- and Cell-Type-Specific Manifestations of Heteroplasmic mtDNA 3243A>G Mutation in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Disease Model
The authors produced induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients carrying the most common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation, m.3243A>G. During reprogramming, the cells underwent an mtDNA bottleneck, mimicking that in epiblast specification. They differentiated iPSCs to heteroplasmic human cells and tissues with isogenic nuclear background and show that the disease manifestation depends on cellular context. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Reduced Ciliary Polycystin-2 in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients with PKD1 Mutations
Heterozygous mutations in PKD1 or PKD2, which encode polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively, cause autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD), whereas mutations in PKHD1, which encodes fibrocystin/polyductin, cause autosomal recessive PKD (ARPKD). However, the relationship between these proteins and the pathogenesis of PKD remains unclear. To model PKD in human cells, investigators established induced pluripotent stem cell lines from fibroblasts of three ADPKD and two ARPKD patients. [J Am Soc Nephrol] Abstract | Press Release

Directed Differentiation and Neurite Extension of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell on Aligned Poly(Lactide) Nanofibers Functionalized with YIGSR Peptide
Fibers that were both aligned and functionalized with Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg (YIGSR) were found to significantly increase the fraction of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) expressing neuron-specific class III beta-tubulin, the level of neurite extension and gene expression for neural markers compared to mESC cultured on random fiber mats and unfunctionalized matrices. [Biomaterials] Abstract

BMP4-Directed Trophoblast Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Is Mediated through a ΔNp63+ Cytotrophoblast Stem Cell State
Scientists showed that BMP4-treated human embryonic stem cells differentiate into bona fide cytotrophoblasts (CTB) by direct comparison with primary human placental tissues and isolated CTB through gene expression profiling. [Development] Abstract

Derivation of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines from Parthenogenetically Developing Rat Blastocysts
The authors attempted to establish rat embryonic stem (ES) cells from parthenogenetically developing blastocysts. Ten blastocysts were prepared by treatment of ovulated rat oocytes with ionomycin and cycloheximide, and three alkaline phosphatase-positive ES cell lines were established using N2B27 medium supplemented with mitogen activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD0325901, glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor CHIR99021, rat leukemia inhibitory factor, and forskolin. [Stem Cell Dev] Abstract

Morphological Differences of Primary Cilia between Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Parental Somatic Cells
Researchers found high expression of hedgehog signaling proteins Patched1 (Ptch1), Smoothened (Smo), Gli1, and Gli2 in reprogrammed cells. Stimulation of the hedgehog pathway resulted in the concerted movement of Ptch1 out of the cilia and Smo into the cilia, implying that the cilia on induced pluripotent stem cells contain functioning hedgehog machinery. [Stem Cell Dev] Abstract

Minimally Invasive Transplantation of iPSC-Derived ALDHhiSSCloVLA4+ Neural Stem Cells Effectively Improves the Phenotype of an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model
The authors isolated a specific neural stem cell (NSC) population from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) based on high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, low side scatter, and integrin VLA4 positivity. They assessed the therapeutic effects of these NSCs on the phenotype of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice after intrathecal or intravenous injections. [Hum Mol Genet] Abstract

Functional Recovery after Transplantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Rat Hemorrhagic Stroke Model
Researchers investigated the functional outcome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) transplantation in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. IPSCs were derived from an ICH patient’s fibroblasts and were injected into the ipsilateral side of ICH in rats. [Neurosci Lett] Abstract

Mammalian Genes Induce Partially Reprogrammed Pluripotent Stem Cells in Non-Mammalian Vertebrate and Invertebrate Species
Scientists found that a set of four mammalian transcription factor genes used to generate induced pluripotent stem cells in mouse and humans can induce a partially reprogrammed pluripotent stem cell state in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms, in mammals, birds, fish, and fly, which span 550 million years from a common ancestor. [eLife] Full Article

STEMdiff™ Definitive Endoderm Kit For Easy, Standardized hPSC Differentiation
 
REVIEWS
Modulating the Biochemical and Biophysical Culture Environment to Enhance Osteogenic Differentiation and Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitors
The authors focus on the derivation of mesenchymal tissue progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells and the control of their osteogenic differentiation and maturation by modulation of the biophysical culture environment. [Stem Cell Res Treat] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the ESC & iPSC research field.

Stem Cell Society Singapore 2013 Symposium
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
PUR Biologics’ Novel Orthopedic Developments Supported by Two New US Patents
PUR Biologics, LLC announced that the United States Patent & Trademark Office has issued two patents covering the multipotent stem cell-derived material utilized by PUR, and its applications in the repair and regeneration of tissue. [Vocus PRW Holdings, LLC] Press Release

New Hub Forms Part of ‘Industrial Revolution’ in Regenerative Medicine
Scientists at the Universities of Sheffield, Loughborough and Cambridge are set to lead a new £4.5 million ‘Hub’ aimed at translating lab discoveries into regenerative treatment to help sufferers of Parkinson’s disease and deafness. The Hub forms part of a £25 million investment from three UK Research Councils in research and equipment to support the development of regenerative medicine therapies for a range of applications, including Parkinson’s disease, cardiovascular disease, wound and musculoskeletal repair, eye disorders and deafness. [The University of Sheffield] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
U.K. Parliamentarians Urge Government to Reshape Push for Open-Access Publishing
British parliamentarians are urging the government of the United Kingdom to alter its plans for transitioning to open-access (OA) publishing of research results. In a report released today, a committee of the House of Commons says the government should encourage greater use of free institutional repositories, rather than OA journals that charge per-paper fees for publishing. [House of Commons, United Kingdom] Press Release

Sequester Cuts May Delay Drug Approvals – And More
The United States Congress’s current mandatory budget cuts – sequestration – threaten unprecedented opportunities in all biomedical research and development. These severe cuts raise the particular concern that translation of intricate knowledge about the molecular biology of cancer to new, targeted treatments will be impeded in part by an underfunded U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [Sci Transl Med] Editorial

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EVENTS
NEW 1st Annual Conference of the German Stem Cell Network (GSCN)
November 11-13, 2013
Berlin, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the ESC & iPSC community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell and Neurodegenerative Diseases (University of Connecticut Health Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Leukemia Biology (Northwestern University)

Technician Position – Stem Cells and Epigenetics (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Self-Renewal of Pluripotent Stem Cells (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)

Research Associate – Safety of Stem Cells (The University of Manchester)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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