Volume 9.03 | Jan 29

ESC & iPSC News 9.03 January 29, 2014
ESC & iPSC News
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Researchers Create Embryonic Stem Cells without Embryo
Researchers demonstrated that any mature adult cell (a somatic cell) has the potential to turn into the equivalent of an embryonic stem cell. Researchers demonstrated in a preclinical model, a novel and unique way that cells can be reprogrammed, a phenomenon they call stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency. [Press release from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital discussing two online prepublications in Nature]
Press Release | Abstract One | Abstract Two
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Citrullination Regulates Pluripotency and Histone H1 Binding to Chromatin
PADI4, the only peptidylarginine deiminase (PADI) with a nuclear localization signal, was previously shown to act in myeloid cells where it mediates profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune response to infection. Scientists showed that the expression and enzymatic activity of Padi4 are also induced under conditions of ground-state pluripotency and during reprogramming in mouse. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release

Clonal Culturing of Human Embryonic Stem Cells on Laminin-521/E-Cadherin Matrix in Defined and Xeno-Free Environment
Researchers produced and isolated a human recombinant Laminin-521 (LN-521) isoform and developed a cell culture matrix containing LN-521 and E-cadherin, which both localize to stem cell niches in vivo. This matrix allows clonal derivation, clonal survival and long-term self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells under completely chemically defined and xeno-free conditions without ROCK inhibitors. [Nat Commun]
Full Article | Press Release

Generation of Folliculogenic Human Epithelial Stem Cells from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Scientists developed a strategy to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells into CD200+/ITGA6+ epithelial stem cells that can reconstitute the epithelial components of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. [Nat Commun] Abstract | Press Release

Nanog Is Dispensable for the Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
The authors found that Nanog is dispensable for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation under optimized culture conditions. They further document that Nanog-deficient iPSCs are transcriptionally highly similar to wild-type iPSCs and support the generation of teratomas and chimeric mice. [Curr Biol]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

In Vitro Chondrogenesis and In Vivo Repair of Osteochondral Defect with Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Researchers investigated the chondrogenic features of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and examine the differences in the chondrogenesis between hiPSCs and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. [Biomaterials] Abstract

OCT4 as a Target of miR-34a Stimulates p63 but Inhibits p53 to Promote Human Cell Transformation
To test their hypothesis whether cell oncogenic transformation shares some mechanisms with the process of reprogramming non-stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), the authors studied the relationship among the key factors for promoting or inhibiting iPSC in radiation-transformed human epithelial cell lines derived from different tissues (lung, breast and colon). [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Beta-Catenin Is Vital for the Integrity of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
The authors generated new genetically modified mouse embryonic stem cell lines allowing for the deletion of β-catenin in a controlled manner by taking advantage of the Cre-ER-T2 system and analyzed the effects in a narrow time window shortly after ablation. By using this approach, rather than taking long term cultured β-catenin null cell lines they demonstrated that β-catenin is dispensable for the maintenance of pluripotency associated genes. [PLoS One] Full Article

Comparative Study of Efficacy of Dopaminergic Neuron Differentiation between Embryonic Stem Cell and Protein-Based Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell
Scientists differentiated two types of stem cells; mouse embryonic stem cells and protein-based induced pluripotent stem cells generated by non-viral methods, into midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and then compared the efficiency of DA neuron differentiation from these two cell types. [PLoS One] Full Article

Single-Step Generation of Gene Knockout-Rescue System in Pluripotent Stem Cells by Promoter Insertion with CRISPR/Cas9
Researchers report an efficient and single step strategy to generate gene knockout-rescue system in pluripotent stem cells by promoter insertion with CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

Characterization of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Sheets Aiming for Clinical Application
Investigators generated human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell sheets optimized to meet clinical use requirements, including quality, quantity, consistency, and safety. These cell sheets are generated as a monolayer of cells without any artificial scaffolds, express typical RPE markers, form tight junctions that exhibit polarized secretion of growth factors, and show phagocytotic ability and gene-expression patterns similar to those of native RPE. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

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Parthenote Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine: Genetic, Epigenetic, and Developmental Features
The authors describe the biology and genetic nature of mammalian parthenogenesis and review potential advantages and limitations of embryonic stem cells derived from parthenogenetic embryos for cell-based therapies. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the ESC & iPSC research field.
Minister Sherlock Opens Ireland’s First Human Use Stem Cell Manufacturing Facility at NUI Galway
The Centre for Cell Manufacturing Ireland at NUI Galway is the first ever facility on the island of Ireland to receive a license from the Irish Medicines Board to manufacture culture-expanded stem cells for human use. [National University of Ireland, Galway] Press Release

Pluristem’s Cell Manufacturing Facility Marks Major Milestone with German Regulatory Approval of New Scaled-Up 3D Manufacturing Process
Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc. announced it has received approval from the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute, Germany’s health authority, to supply cells from its advanced, fully automated, and proprietary 3D cell expansion manufacturing platform implemented at its new state-of-the-art Good Manufacturing Practices facility. [Pluristem Therapeutics Inc.] Press Release

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Putin Decree Shakes Up Russian Science Funding
President Vladimir Putin signed a clutch of decrees that could have a profound effect on science in Russia. One stipulates that all state research funding should be distributed via a competitive grants system. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

Push for Regenerative Medicine R&D
An expert panel has proposed that the Japanese government focus the nation’s medical research and development on such cutting-edge fields as regenerative medicine and genomic medicine. Based on a report compiled by the panel, the Abe administration will soon adopt a comprehensive strategy on a future vision for Japan’s medical research at a meeting of its task force for health care strategy. [The Japanese Times] Editorial
NEW Challenges toward Sound Scientific Regulation of Cell Therapy Products
March 7-8, 2014
Kyoto, Japan

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the ESC & iPSC community.
NEW Senior Research Scientist – Immunogenicity and Epigenetic Regulation of hiPSC-Derived Endothelial Cells (Magdi Yacoub Institute)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Signaling and Epigenetics (Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Genetica Molecolare)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Systems Biology of Cellular Reprogramming (University of California – San Diego)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cells and Epigenetics (Mount-Sinai)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Morphogenetic Signaling Pathways in Development and Disease (University of Rochester Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Epigenetic Regulation of Heart Formation Using Human ES & iPS Cells (University of Pittsburgh)

Postdoctoral Associate – Hematopoietic Differentiation (Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Associate – Stem Cell Biology (State University of New York)

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