Volume 9.36 | Sep 17

ESC & iPSC News 9.36 September 17, 2014
ESC & iPSC News
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TOP STORY
Reversal of Diabetes with Insulin-Producing Cells Derived In Vitro from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Researchers describe a seven-stage protocol that efficiently converts human embryonic stem cells into insulin-producing cells. Stage 7 cells expressed key markers of mature pancreatic beta cells, including MAFA, and displayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion similar to that of human islets during static incubations in vitro. [Nat Biotechnol] Abstract | Press Release
SmartDish™ with STEMgrid™-6 for Accurate Counting of Hematopoietic CFU Assays
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Resetting Transcription Factor Control Circuitry toward Ground-State Pluripotency in Human
Current human pluripotent stem cells lack the transcription factor circuitry that governs the ground state of mouse embryonic stem cells. Researchers report that short-term expression of two components, NANOG and KLF2, is sufficient to ignite other elements of the network and reset the human pluripotent state. [Cell]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Monolayer Culturing and Cloning of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells on Laminin-521-Based Matrices under Xeno-Free and Chemically Defined Conditions
Scientists describe a protocol for monolayer culturing of Oct-4-positive human pluripotent stem cells on a specific laminin-521 isoform, under xeno-free and chemically defined conditions. [Nat Protoc] Abstract

Human Embryonic Stem Cells Prevent T-Cell Activation by Suppressing Dendritic Cell Function via TGF-Beta Signaling Pathway
Using co-cultures of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) with allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cells, scientists demonstrate that hESCs prevent proliferation and activation of human CD4+ T-lymphocytes, an effect dependent upon monocytes. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Mouse Primordial Germ Cells by Small Molecule Compounds
The authors examined the effects of transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) inhibitor and Kempaullone on embryonic germ cell (EGC) derivation from primordial germ cells (PGCs). Treatment of PGCs with TGFβR inhibitor and/or Kempaullone generated pluripotent stem cells under standard embryonic stem cell culture conditions without basic fibroblast growth factor and stem cell factor, which they termed induced EGCs. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Divergence(s) in Nodal Signaling between Aggressive Melanoma and Embryonic Stem Cells
By employing receptor profiling at the mRNA and protein level(s), scientists made the novel discovery that embryonic stem cells and metastatic melanoma cells share a similar repertoire of Type I serine/threonine kinase receptors, but diverge in their Type II receptor expression. [Int J Cancer] Abstract | Press Release

Conjoint Propagation and Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Cardiomyocytes in a Defined Microcarrier Spinner Culture
Functional cardiomyocytes (CMs), differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), offer a potentially unlimited cell source for cardiac disease therapies and regenerative cardiovascular medicine. However, conventional production methods on monolayer culture surfaces cannot adequately supply the large numbers of cells required for such treatments. An integrated microcarrier bioprocessing system for hESC propagation and subsequent CM differentiation was developed. [Stem Cell Res Ther] Abstract | Full Article

miRNA-17 Members that Target Bmpr2 Influence Signaling Mechanisms Important for Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation In Vitro and Gastrulation in Embryos
Previously, the authors presented evidence that microRNA-17 family members, miR-17-5p, miR-20a, miR-93, and miR-106a were differentially expressed in mouse embryos and functioned to control differentiation of the stem cell population. Here, they identify function(s) these miRNAs have during gastrulation. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Hypoxia Enhances Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Definitive Endoderm and Distal Lung Cells
Researchers investigated the effects of hypoxia on spontaneous and activin A-induced definitive endoderm differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and their subsequent differentiation into distal pulmonary epithelial cells. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Improved Derivation Efficiency and Pluripotency of Stem Cells from the Refractory Inbred C57BL/6 Mouse Strain by Small Molecules
The authors found significantly increased derivation efficiency of embryonic stem (ES) cells from in vivo fertilized embryos (fES) of C57BL/6 with the use of PD 98059 (PD). Because fES and ES from cloned embryos (ntES) are not distinguishable in transcription or translation profiles, they used ntES cells to compare the effect of small molecules on their in vitro characteristics, in vitro differentiation ability, and the ability to generate full-term ntES-4N pups by tetraploid complementation. [PLoS One] Full Article

Dual Small-Molecule Targeting of SMAD Signaling Stimulates Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells toward Neural Lineages
To provide an alternative renewable cell source for cell-based transplantation and as study models for neurological diseases, scientists generated induced pluripotent stem cells from human dermal fibroblasts and then differentiated them into neural progenitor cells and mature neurons by dual SMAD signaling inhibitors. [PLoS One] Full Article

α2 Integrin, Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer, and Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 Act Sequentially to Induce Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Odontoblast-Like Cells
Researchers characterized the signal cascade underpinning odontoblastic differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells. The expression of α2 integrin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 mRNA and protein were all potently increased during odontoblastic differentiation. [Exp Cell Res] Abstract

Free Cell Stem Cell Poster: Directed Differentiation of ESCs/iPSCs
 
REVIEWS
Proteomics and Glycoproteomics of Pluripotent Stem-Cell Surface Proteins
The author summarizes the impact of these studies on stem-cell biology, and discuss proteomic techniques used in these studies. A systematic comparison of all the techniques and their results is also attempted here to help reveal pros, cons, and the complementarity of the existing methods. [Proteomics] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the ESC & iPSC research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Tory Williams Combats Controversy Surrounding Stem Cell Therapy with New Book
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. announced the launch of first time hard cover title Inevitable Collision: The Inspiring Story that Brought Stem Cell Research to Conservative America, in an effort to bring awareness to the growing conversation and debate surrounding stem cell research and regenerative medicine. [Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. (EurekAlert)] Press Release

HMS Receives $30 Million for Therapeutic Science Program
The Harvard Program in Therapeutic Science has received grant funding from three U.S. government agencies to launch its new research activities. The funding, from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration totals approximately $30 million over five years. [Harvard Medical School (HMS)] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free wallchart from Nature Neuroscience – Neural Stem Cells. Request your copy.
 
POLICY NEWS
STAP Co-Author Offers Yet Another Recipe for Stem Cells
A senior co-author on controversial, and now retracted, stem cell papers has quietly posted new tips on how the research can be replicated. Two papers claiming that stressing the body’s cell could produce embryonic-like stem cells, a process called stimulus triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP), were heralded when published in Nature in January but thrashed soon after when problematic images and figures were soon found. [Nature News] Editorial

Former Portuguese Banker Gets Top European Research Policy Job
Carlos Moedas, secretary of state to Portugal’s center-right prime minister, has been appointed European commissioner in charge of research, science, and innovation. If his appointment is approved by the European Parliament, he will take over from Máire Geoghegan-Quinn for a five-year term in this top-level position at the European Commission, the European Union’s executive branch. [ScienceInsider] Editorial
 
EVENTS
NEW The Australasian Society for Stem Cell Research (ASSCR) Meeting 2014
November 9-11, 2014
Lorne, Australia

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the ESC & iPSC community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from a Series of Individual Patients with Dravet Syndrome (Pfizer Neusentis)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cells and Neurodegeneration (University of Copenhagen)

Research Technician – Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine (King’s College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Transplantation Aspects of Hepatocytes Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (INSERM UMR 1064)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cardiac Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells (Stanford University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cardiac Animal Surgery (Stanford University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Hematopoietic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (Indiana University School of Medicine)

Research Technician – Maintenance of Embryonic Stem Cell Lines, Electroporation and Subcloning (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (Brigham & Women’s Hospital – Harvard Medical School)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology Endoderm Lineages (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Biology (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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