Volume 10.47 | Dec 16

ESC & iPSC News 10.47 December 16, 2015
ESC & iPSC News
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Cell Memory Loss Enables the Production of Stem Cells
Scientists identified a molecular key that helps maintain identity and prevents the conversion of adult cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. They identified genes that when suppressed effectively erase a cell’s memory, making the cell more susceptible to reprogramming and, consequently, making the process of reprogramming quicker and more efficient. [Press release from the Harvard Stem Cell Institute discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
Request your Free Wallchart on Naive and Primed Stem Cell States
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Generation of Serotonin Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Investigators demonstrated efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to cells resembling central serotonin neurons, primarily those located in the rhombomeric segments 2-3 of the rostral raphe, which participate in high-order brain functions. [Nat Biotechnol] Abstract

A XEN-Like State Bridges Somatic Cells to Pluripotency during Chemical Reprogramming
The authors showed that chemical reprogramming requires the early formation of extra-embryonic endoderm (XEN)-like cells and a late transition from XEN-like cells to chemically-induced pluripotent stem cells, a unique route that fundamentally differs from the pathway of transcription factor-induced reprogramming. [Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

3D Chromosome Regulatory Landscape of Human Pluripotent Cells
Scientists describe the 3D chromosome regulatory landscape of human naive and primed embryonic stem cells. To devise this map, they identified transcriptional enhancers and insulators in these cells and placed them within the context of cohesin-associated CTCF-CTCF loops using cohesin ChIA-PET data. [Cell Stem Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

FGF2 Mediates Hepatic Progenitor Cell Formation during Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation by Inducing the WNT Antagonist NKD1
Scientists showed that loss of naked cuticle homolog 1 (NKD1) suppresses the formation of hepatic progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells and that this phenotype can be rescued by using a pharmacological antagonist of canonical WNT signaling. [Genes Dev] Abstract

Cdk12 Is Essential for Embryonic Development and the Maintenance of Genomic Stability
Researchers used an in vitro culture system of blastocysts to examine the molecular mechanisms associated with the embryonic lethality of Cdk12-deficient embryos. [Cell Death Differ] Full Article

DPPA5 Supports Pluripotency and Reprogramming by Regulating NANOG Turnover
Investigators demonstrated that the pluripotent stem cell (PSC) marker developmental pluripotency associated 5 (DPPA5) plays an important role in human PSC self-renewal and cell reprogramming in feeder-free conditions. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Long-Term Xeno-Free Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells on Hydrogels with Optimal Elasticity
Scientists investigated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCS) cultures on biomaterials with different elasticities that were grafted with different nanosegments. The hPSCs cultured on the stiffest substrates tended to differentiate after five days of culture, whereas the hPSCs cultured on the optimal elastic substrates maintained their pluripotency for over 20 passages under xeno-free conditions. [Sci Rep] Full Article

CCR5 Disruption in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Using CRISPR/Cas9 Provides Selective Resistance of Immune Cells to CCR5-Tropic HIV-1 Virus
Researchers report the successful targeting of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) in GFP-marked human induced pluripotent stem cells using CRISPR/Cas9 with single and dual guide RNAs. [Mol Ther Nucleic Acids] Full Article

Development and Validation of a Rex1-RFP Potency Activity Reporter Assay that Quantifies Stress-Forced Potency Loss in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells
Investigators showed, using immunoblots, microscopic analysis, flow cytometry, and fluorescence microplate reader, that the response to stress of potency-reporter embryonic stem cell (ESCs) is similar to parental ESCs assayed by biochemical means. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

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Potential Applications of Keratinocytes Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells
The authors focus on the potential off-the-shelf use of human embryonic stem cells-derived keratinocytes for future clinical applications as well as a powerful in vitro skin model to study skin function and integrity, host-pathogen interactions and disease pathogenesis. [Biotechnol J] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the ESC & iPSC research field.
New Center Focuses on Regenerative Medicine
A new center has been formed at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis to facilitate research that explores the regenerative properties of cells and tissues. [Washington University in St. Louis] Press Release

Kyoto University’s Center for iPS Cell Research Application and Takeda Launch the Joint Program for iPS Cell Applications Research at the Shonan Research Center (T-CiRA)
The Center for iPS Cell Research and Application at Kyoto University and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited announced the initiation of the joint research program to develop clinical applications of induced pluripotent stem cells. [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited] Press Release

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Decision to End Monkey Experiments Based on Finances, Not Animal Rights, NIH Says
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) revealed that it had begun to phase out controversial monkey experiments at one of its labs in Poolesville, Maryland. The action followed an aggressive yearlong campaign by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, but an NIH director told ScienceInsider that financial straits—not animal rights pressures—led to the decision. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

In Unique Deal, Elsevier Agrees to Make Some Papers by Dutch Authors Free
A standoff between Dutch universities and publishing giant Elsevier is finally over. After more than a year of negotiations—and a threat to boycott Elsevier’s 2500 journals—a deal has been struck: For no additional charge beyond subscription fees, 30% of research published by Dutch researchers in Elsevier journals will be open access by 2018. [ScienceInsider] Editorial
NEW 28th European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Symposium
November 29-December 2, 2016
Munich, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the ESC & iPSC community.
NEW Scientist – Cell Biology (Semma Therapeutics)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Cellular Genetic Program (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute)

PhD Candidate – Embryonic Stem Cell and Molecular Research (Ghent University)

Assistant or Associate Professor – Regenerative Kidney Research (University of Montreal)

Assistant, Associate or Full Professor – Regenerative Vision Research (University of Montreal)

Team Leader/Professor/Associate Professor – Regenerative Medicine (Ji Nan University)

Postdoctoral Fellow and Research Scientist – Epigenomics and Systems Biology (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cardiac Regeneration (Duke University)

Postdoctoral Position – Modeling and Treatment of Human Skeletal Muscle Diseases (Duke University)

Team Leader Position – Developmental Biology (Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience/Stem Cell Research (University of California, Davis)

Assistant/Associate/Full Professor – Biomedical Engineering (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

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